Political Structure

Official Name


Form Of State

Federated Constitutional Monarchy

The Executive

The King appoints a Prime Minister and, on the Prime Minister’s advice, the Cabinet

Head Of State

Yang Di-pertuan Agong (King or Supreme Sovereign), elected by and from among the nine hereditary rulers of Malaysia’s states. In practice, the post is rotated every five years.

National Legislature

Bicameral federal parliament. The Senate (Dewan negara, the upper house) has 70 members – 26 elected from thr state legislatures, and 44 appointed by the King. The House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat, the lower house) has 222 directly elected members. Senators serve six-year terms and members of the lower house five-year terms

State Government

There are state governments in each of Malaysia’s 13 states, in nine of which the heads of state are hereditary rulers. Each state has its own constitution, a council of state or cabinet with executive authority, and a legislature that deals with matters not reserved to the federal parliament. There are also three federal territories, namely Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan

National Elections

The last general election took place in May 2013 and the next is due in 2018

National Government

The Barisan Nasional (BN, the governing 13-party coalition), the main element of which is the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), holds 134 of the 222 seats in the lower house. The BN has the simple majority that it needs to pass legislation, but not the two-thirds majority that would allow it to amend the constitution

Main Political Organizations

Government: The main parties in the Barisan Nasional (BN) are
United Malays National Organisatio (UMNO),
the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA),
the Malysian Indian Congress (MIC),
the Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (Gerakan),
the Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PPBB) and
the Sarawak United People’s Party (SUPP)

Opposition: The three founding parties in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) alliance are
the Parti Amanah Negara, the Democratic Action Party (DAP),
the Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and
Parti Islam se-Malaysia (PAS)

Key Ministers

Prime Minister & Minister of Finance
YAB Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak
Deputy Prime Minister & Minister of Home Affair
YAB Dato’ Seri Dr. Ahmad Zahid Bin Hamidi
Minister of Transportation
YB Dato’ Sri Liow Tiong Lai
Miniter of Health
YB Datuk Seri Dr. S. Subramaniam
Minister of Tourism and Culture
YB Dato’ Seri Mohamed Nazri Bin Abdul Aziz
Minister of Defence
YB Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Bin Tun Hussein
Minister of International Trade & Industry
YB Dato’ Sri Mustapa Bin Mohamed
Minister of Energy, Green Technology & Water
YB Datuk Seri Panglima Dr. Maximus Johnity Ongkili
Minister of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry
YB Dato’ Sri Ahmad Shabery Bin Cheek
Minister of Rural and Regional Development
YB Dato’ Sri Ismail Sabri Bin Yaakob
Minister of Foreign Affair
YB Dato’ Sri Anifah Bin Aman
Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation
YB Datuk Seri Panglima Wilfred Madius Tangau
Minister of Woman, Family and Federal Development
YB Dato’ Sri Hajah Rohani Binti Haji Abdul Karim
Minister of Public Works
YB Dato’ Sri Haji Fadillah Bin Yusof
Minister of Human Resources
YB Dato’ Sri Richard Riot Anak Jaem
Minister of the Federal Territories
YB Datuk Seri Tengku Adnan Bin Tengku Mansor
Minister of Higher Education
YB Dato’ Seri Haji Idris Bin Jusoh
Minister of Education
YB Dato’ Seri Mahdzir Bin Khalid
Minister for Youth and Sports
YB Encik Khairy Jamaluddin Bin Abu Bakar
Minister of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government
YB Tan Sri Haji Noh Bin Omar
Minister of Domestic Trade, Co-Operatives And Consumerism
YB Dato’ Seri Hamzah Bin Zainudin
Minister of Natural Resource and Environment
YB Dato Sri Dr. Haji Wan Junaidi Bin Tuanku Jaafar
Minister of Communication And Multimedia
YB Senator Datuk Seri Panglima Dr. Mohd Salleh Bin Tun Said Keruak

Central Bank Governor

Datuk Muhammad Bin Ibrahim

Official Name

Federal Republic of Somalia

Federal parliamentary representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of Somalia, the President of Somalia is head of state, and Prime Minister as head of government who is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval.

Head Of State

In February,8 2017 Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed ( Farmajo) was elected to the post of President of Somalia for a four-year term.

Council Of Ministers

The Cabinet is formally known as the Council of Ministers. It is appointed by the Prime Minister.

Main Members Of The Cabinets

Prime Minister
Hassan Ali Khayre

Parliament Of Somalia

The Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President and Prime Minister, and has the authority to pass and veto laws. It is bicameral, and consists of a 275-seat lower house as well as an upper house capped at 54 representatives. By law, at least 30% of all MPs must be women. The current Members of parliament were selected by a Technical Selection Committee, which was tasked with vetting potential legislators that were in turn nominated by a National Constituent Assembly consisting of elders. The current Speaker of the Federal Parliament is Mohamed Osman Jawari.


The national court structure is organized into three tiers: the Constitutional Court, Federal Government level courts and Federal Member State level courts. A nine-member Judicial Service Commission appoints any Federal tier member of the judiciary. It also selects and presents potential Constitutional Court judges to the House of the People of the Federal Parliament for approval. If endorsed, the President appoints the candidate as a judge of the Constitutional Court. The five-member Constitutional Court adjudicates issues pertaining to the constitution, in addition to various Federal and sub-national matters.

Federal Member States

Local state governments, officially recognized as Federal Member States, have a degree of autonomy over regional affairs and maintain their own police and security forces. However, they are constitutionally subject to the authority of the Government of the Federal Republic of Somalia. The national parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the Federal Member States within the Federal Republic of Somalia